Posts from 2019

  • Using Unordered Data Structures on C++ std::pair

    In many situations, it seems fairly natural to use std::unordered_set and std::unordered_map on std::pair. Here’s an example of what you might be tempted to do:

    #include <unordered_set>
    int main(void) {
        std::unordered_set<std::pair<int, int>> test;

    However, std::pair is not hashable by default, so a simple snippet like the above would not work.

    There are many proposals online to define a pairhash class and explicitly specify it as the hash function as a template parameter to std::unordered_set and std::unordered_map.

    This is not a bad idea. In fact, if you are writing a library, you should probably do this. But we can do better…

    (Read more...)
  • Simple NDP Proxy to Route Your IPv6 VPN Addresses

    If you tried setting up an IPv6-capable VPN on a VPS provider that gave you an IP range to play with, perhaps a /64 or larger, you would want to assign some of the IPv6 addresses you have to your clients. In this post, we suppose that you have the range 2001:db8::/64.

    This should be a simple process: enable the sysctl option net.ipv6.conf.all.forwarding to 1 (or whatever the equivalent is on your system), use DHCPv6 or SLAAC to assign the addresses to the clients, and then your client should have working IPv6.

    The Problem

    Unfortunately, this is not so simple. Most VPS providers are not actually routing the entire subnet 2001:db8::/64 to you. Rather, they just connect a number of VPSes onto the same virtual Ethernet network and rely on the Neighbour Discovery Protocol (NDP) to find the router.

    (Read more...)